Woman browsing new book collection

The Peter White Public Library is a community service institution that collects and organizes information in a variety of formats that is easily accessible to all.

In keeping with the mission of the Peter White Public Library, the collection responds to the diverse needs and interests, both immediate and future, of the community. In addition to providing the best service possible to its regular users, the Library collects materials and searches for methods of service that will meet the needs of community members who are not traditional library users. The Library provides service to all, regardless of race, creed, color, gender, ability, sexual orientation, age, occupation or financial position.

Peter White Public Library Mission Statement
To make informational, educational, cultural and recreational materials and programs readily available and accessible to all Library users. The staff will provide prompt, accurate information and guidance to our patrons in a welcoming, business-like atmosphere.

Purpose and Goal of the Collection Development Policy
Because of the large volume of publishing as well as limitations of the library’s budget and space, the library needs a Collection Development Policy to provide a framework for the growth and development of its collection in support of its mission. The policy guides library staff members in the selection and withdrawal of materials and informs the public about the principles upon which selections are made. The goal of the policy is to provide a useful, well-balanced, broad and diverse collection of materials that reflects a wide range of views, expressions, opinions and interests and meets the needs of the community.

Definition
“Selection” refers to the decisions made to either add materials to the collection or to retain materials already in the collection. “Withdrawal” refers to permanently removing an item from the collection.

Responsibility for Selection
The ultimate responsibility for material selection rests with the Library Director who operates within the framework of policies established by the Library Board of Trustees. The Library Director communicates the Collection Development Policy to the Collection Development Librarian and other librarians who use professional judgment and expertise to make selection and withdrawal decisions based on the policy. The Library Director allocates the materials budget annually.

Selection librarians will not be disciplined or dismissed for the selection of library materials when the selection is made in good faith and in accordance with the written policy and accepted procedures.

General Principles of Selection Process
The Library strives to develop a collection of standard works of permanent value and popular materials of current significance. The interests and needs of the community; the individual merit of each item; and the Library’s existing collection, budget and services are the major factors in selecting materials. Basic to this policy are the guidelines established by the American Library Association in its Library Bill of Rights, Freedom to Read Statement, and Freedom to View Statement (appended).

The Peter White Public Library considers all types and formats of media to be in the realm of human expression and part of the human record. Because the Library functions in a rapidly changing society, it is flexible about changes in materials, both in format and style of expression.

Criteria for Selection and Withdrawal

Selection of library materials involves the following factors and considerations:

  1. The experience and knowledge of the selectors
  2. Their knowledge of the community’s interests and needs
  3. The Library’s existing collection
  4. The Library’s materials budget and space limitations
  5. The holdings and availability of other area library resources

General criteria for selecting library materials are listed below. An item need not meet all of the criteria in order to be selected.

  1. Interests, demands and needs of the community
  2. Accuracy and authoritativeness of content
  3. Literary or stylistic quality, artistic merit
  4. Timeliness of material; reissues of recordings are considered to be current publications
  5. Local and regional importance and/or historical value
  6. Physical condition and quality, durability and suitability of format for shelving, storing and circulation and to the content of the item
  7.  Reputation and competence of the author, creator or publisher
  8. Attention of reviewers, critics and the public, especially in professional journals and other reputable resources
  9. Relevance to existing collection
  10.  Contemporary significance, popular interest, uniqueness or permanent value
  11. Representation of diverse points of view
  12.  Availability elsewhere through interlibrary loan
  13. Accessibility for multiple users of electronic formats

Selection Criteria for Special Works

A. Local Works

Material by local authors or self-published/subsidy published materials will be given consideration if the work meets the general selection criteria.

B. Textbooks

Providing textbooks and curriculum material is generally held to be the responsibility of the schools. Materials will not be purchased for the sole purpose of supporting a curriculum. Textbooks will be considered when they supply the best or only information on a specific topic.

C. Requests

All requests and suggestions from patrons for specific titles or subject areas will be considered using the selection criteria described in this policy. Patrons can request that specific items be purchased by filling out a request card or through a phone call or email request to library staff. Whenever there is enough demand or interest in a title or subject, an item with unfavorable reviews may be purchased unless it lacks literary merit or social value or the suggested subject is already covered by other material in the collection.

D. Preservation

The library preserves materials that cannot be replaced or obtained through resource sharing and that continue to have long-standing or permanent significance to the collection.

E. Local History Collection

The library maintains a collection of local and state history materials containing current and historical information about the city of Marquette, Marquette County, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Michigan.

Included in this collection are items about Marquette or written by Marquette authors, minutes of local governing bodies, newspapers, and vertical files containing information, articles and clippings on local and state happenings.

Materials are placed in the local history collection because they are unique, costly to replace or irreplaceable.

The library welcomes gifts and donations of books and other memorabilia which relate in a meaningful way directly to the history of Marquette and surrounding area. Acceptance of such material is subject to the approval of library staff. Consideration will be given to the appropriateness of the material and the ability of the library to store and house such material in a safe and efficient manner.

The library works in cooperation with the Marquette Regional History Center and the Central Upper Peninsula Archives at Northern Michigan University regarding local and state history materials. The library reserves the right to withdraw local history collection materials as necessary.

 
Materials for Specific Audiences:

A. Materials for Youth

The Youth Services Department serves youth from birth through age 18, parents and grandparents, guardians, caregivers, teachers, homeschoolers, university students, and other adults interested in children’s literature and youth education.

The Youth Services Department applies the same policies and criteria to the selection of materials for youth as those selected for adults with the addition of vocabulary suitable to the age of the intended audience and quality of the illustrations.

The library’s goal in selecting materials in a variety of formats for youth is to make available a collection which satisfies patrons’ informational and recreational needs. Materials are selected to meet the general needs of the majority of youth.

Materials whose qualities make them valuable to youth with special needs, talents, problems or interests are also considered.

The library supports the Free Access to Libraries for Minors and Restricted Access to Library Materials statements of the American Library Association (appended).

Parents and legal guardians have the responsibility to monitor items their minor children select from the Library collection. Materials will not be excluded from the collection because they may be used by a minor.

B.  Materials and Equipment for People with Visual Disabilities

Materials and equipment for people with visual impairments, such as large-print books and audio books are acquired according to patron demand. The library also encourages patrons with special needs to use the resources of the Great Lakes Talking Book Center at Superiorland Library Cooperative.

Audio Music and Film Collection

The Peter White Public Library is fortunate in that the Carroll Paul Memorial Trust Fund exists to fund the purchase of library materials pertaining to music. Our audio music and film collection includes music from a broad range of styles and eras in varying degrees of depth and a wide variety of films including popular features, educational, independent, foreign and popular television series. Generally, this is a popular browsing collection for all ages. Rating guides and warning labels are not assigned by the library.

Interlibrary Loan

Because of limited space and budget, the library is not able to purchase and house all materials that are requested. Therefore, interlibrary loan is used to obtain from other libraries those materials that are beyond the scope of Peter White Public Library’s collection. In return for this service, Peter White Public Library agrees to lend materials to other libraries through the same interlibrary loan networks.

The Peter White Public Library is a member of the Upper Peninsula Region of Library Cooperation (UPRLC) and Michigan eLibrary Catalog (MeLCat). UPRLC consists of many libraries in the Upper Peninsula and northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan. MeLCat consists of many libraries throughout the State of Michigan. These libraries have access to common online catalogs for the purpose of sharing materials. The library encourages the use of interlibrary loan whereby patrons may place requests on items owned by other libraries, and those items will be delivered to the library as they become available. The library participates in OCLC WorldCat through the Superiorland Library Cooperative, to provide access to materials owned by libraries outside the State of Michigan.

Weeding

Weeding is necessary to maintain a vital, useful and up-to-date collection.

Selection of materials for weeding is based on the following criteria:

  1. Materials worn out through use
  2. Ephemeral materials which are no longer timely
  3. Materials no longer considered accurate or factual
  4. Materials which have had little or no recent use
  5. Excess copies no longer in demand

Material that is withdrawn may be replaced using the selection criteria.

  1. Disposal of materials weeded from the collection is accomplished according to the following priorities:
  2. Withdrawn materials may be made available to other libraries or institutions, as deemed appropriate by the director or the collection development librarian.
  3. Materials not made available to other libraries and institutions and deemed to have potential resale value are stored for the Friends of the Library book sale, where they are offered on a first-come, first-served basis.
  4. Materials unsuitable for other institutions or resale are recycled or discarded.
  5. The library cannot accept requests to hold weeded materials for individuals.

Gifts of Materials

The library appreciates the donation of money, materials and artwork for the development of the library collection.

The library will accept gifts and donations of books, films, audio items, pamphlets, software, artwork, periodicals or other materials in good condition with the understanding that such gifts become the exclusive property of the library. The library will not accept donations that are not outright gifts. The library staff and Board of Trustees reserve the right to accept or reject any gift or donation if the gift or donation is not in the library’s best interest.

 Gifts and donations will be added to the collection provided they meet the same selection criteria applied to purchased materials. The library cannot guarantee that a gift or donation will become part of the library collection or, if it does become part of the collection, that it will be a permanent part. Unsolicited gifts and donations may be sold or discarded at the library staff’s discretion.

The library will not assign a value to gifts or donated materials. The library will, upon request of the donor, provide a receipt for gifts or donations but cannot evaluate or appraise any gift or donation. Material donations may be given gift plates.

 
Reconsideration of Library Materials

The library recognizes that some materials are controversial and that any given item may offend some patrons. Selection of materials will not be made on the basis of anticipated approval or disapproval but solely on the basis of the selection criteria set forth in this policy.

Library materials will not be marked or identified to show approval or disapproval of their contents, and no library materials will be sequestered except to protect them from damage or theft.

Responsibility for the reading habits of children rests with the child’s parent(s) or legal guardian(s). Selection of materials for the collection will not be inhibited by the possibility that items may be used by children.

Patrons requesting reconsideration of a library item may complete and sign a Request for Reconsideration of Library Materials Form. When the form is completed, it will be given to the Library Director for response. The item will be reviewed in accordance with the library’s overall objectives, its Collection Development Policy, the Library Bill of Rights, and the American Library Association Guidelines on Intellectual Freedom. The Library Director will, at the earliest possible date, communicate his/her decision, and the reasons for it, in writing to the patron who initiated the request.

The Library Director will inform the Board of Trustees of all requests for reconsideration and their disposition.

The inclusion of any material in the library collection does not imply endorsement of the viewpoints of the author or creator expressed therein.

 


 

Appendices:

Library Bill of Rights

Freedom to Read Statement

Freedom to View Statement

Free Access to Libraries for Minors: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Restricted Access to Library Materials: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Access for Children and Young Adults to Non-Print Materials: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

PWPL Request for Reconsideration of Library Materials Form

 

Adopted by the Library Board of Trustees March, 2014

 

Library Bill of Rights

The American Library Association affirms that all libraries are forums for information and ideas, and that the following basic policies should guide their services.

  1. Books and other library resources should be provided for the interest, information, and enlightenment of all people of the community the library serves. Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation.
  2. Libraries should provide materials and information presenting all points of view on current and historical issues. Materials should not be proscribed or removed because of partisan or doctrinal disapproval.

III. Libraries should challenge censorship in the fulfillment of their responsibility to provide information and enlightenment.

  1. Libraries should cooperate with all persons and groups concerned with resisting abridgment of free expression and free access to ideas.
  2. A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views.
  3. Libraries that make exhibit spaces and meeting rooms available to the public they serve should make such facilities available on an equitable basis, regardless of the beliefs or affiliations of individuals or groups requesting their use.


Adopted June 19, 1939, by the ALA Council; amended October 14, 1944; June 18, 1948; February 2, 1961; June 27, 1967; January 23, 1980; inclusion of “age” reaffirmed January 23, 1996.

 http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill

The Freedom to Read Statement

The freedom to read is essential to our democracy. It is continuously under attack. Private groups and public authorities in various parts of the country are working to remove or limit access to reading materials, to censor content in schools, to label “controversial” views, to distribute lists of “objectionable” books or authors, and to purge libraries. These actions apparently rise from a view that our national tradition of free expression is no longer valid; that censorship and suppression are needed to counter threats to safety or national security, as well as to avoid the subversion of politics and the corruption of morals. We, as individuals devoted to reading and as librarians and publishers responsible for disseminating ideas, wish to assert the public interest in the preservation of the freedom to read.

Most attempts at suppression rest on a denial of the fundamental premise of democracy: that the ordinary individual, by exercising critical judgment, will select the good and reject the bad. We trust Americans to recognize propaganda and misinformation, and to make their own decisions about what they read and believe. We do not believe they are prepared to sacrifice their heritage of a free press in order to be “protected” against what others think may be bad for them. We believe they still favor free enterprise in ideas and expression.

These efforts at suppression are related to a larger pattern of pressures being brought against education, the press, art and images, films, broadcast media, and the Internet. The problem is not only one of actual censorship. The shadow of fear cast by these pressures leads, we suspect, to an even larger voluntary curtailment of expression by those who seek to avoid controversy or unwelcome scrutiny by government officials.

Such pressure toward conformity is perhaps natural to a time of accelerated change. And yet suppression is never more dangerous than in such a time of social tension. Freedom has given the United States the elasticity to endure strain. Freedom keeps open the path of novel and creative solutions, and enables change to come by choice. Every silencing of a heresy, every enforcement of an orthodoxy, diminishes the toughness and resilience of our society and leaves it the less able to deal with controversy and difference.

Now as always in our history, reading is among our greatest freedoms. The freedom to read and write is almost the only means for making generally available ideas or manners of expression that can initially command only a small audience. The written word is the natural medium for the new idea and the untried voice from which come the original contributions to social growth. It is essential to the extended discussion that serious thought requires, and to the accumulation of knowledge and ideas into organized collections.

We believe that free communication is essential to the preservation of a free society and a creative culture. We believe that these pressures toward conformity present the danger of limiting the range and variety of inquiry and expression on which our democracy and our culture depend. We believe that every American community must jealously guard the freedom to publish and to circulate, in order to preserve its own freedom to read. We believe that publishers and librarians have a profound responsibility to give validity to that freedom to read by making it possible for the readers to choose freely from a variety of offerings.

The freedom to read is guaranteed by the Constitution. Those with faith in free people will stand firm on these constitutional guarantees of essential rights and will exercise the responsibilities that accompany these rights.

We therefore affirm these propositions:


  1. It is in the public interest for publishers and librarians to make available the widest diversity of views and expressions, including those that are unorthodox, unpopular, or considered dangerous by the majority.

Creative thought is by definition new, and what is new is different. The bearer of every new thought is a rebel until that idea is refined and tested. Totalitarian systems attempt to maintain themselves in power by the ruthless suppression of any concept that challenges the established orthodoxy. The power of a democratic system to adapt to change is vastly strengthened by the freedom of its citizens to choose widely from among conflicting opinions offered freely to them. To stifle every nonconformist idea at birth would mark the end of the democratic process. Furthermore, only through the constant activity of weighing and selecting can the democratic mind attain the strength demanded by times like these. We need to know not only what we believe but why we believe it.

  1. Publishers, librarians, and booksellers do not need to endorse every idea or presentation they make available. It would conflict with the public interest for them to establish their own political, moral, or aesthetic views as a standard for determining what should be published or circulated.

 Publishers and librarians serve the educational process by helping to make available knowledge and ideas required for the growth of the mind and the increase of learning. They do not foster education by imposing as mentors the patterns of their own thought. The people should have the freedom to read and consider a broader range of ideas than those that may be held by any single librarian or publisher or government or church. It is wrong that what one can read should be confined to what another thinks proper.


  1. It is contrary to the public interest for publishers or librarians to bar access to writings on the basis of the personal history or political affiliations of the author.


No art or literature can flourish if it is to be measured by the political views or private lives of its creators. No society of free people can flourish that draws up lists of writers to whom it will not listen, whatever they may have to say.


  1. There is no place in our society for efforts to coerce the taste of others, to confine adults to the reading matter deemed suitable for adolescents, or to inhibit the efforts of writers to achieve artistic expression.

 
To some, much of modern expression is shocking. But is not much of life itself shocking? We cut off literature at the source if we prevent writers from dealing with the stuff of life. Parents and teachers have a responsibility to prepare the young to meet the diversity of experiences in life to which they will be exposed, as they have a responsibility to help them learn to think critically for themselves. These are affirmative responsibilities, not to be discharged simply by preventing them from reading works for which they are not yet prepared. In these matters values differ, and values cannot be legislated; nor can machinery be devised that will suit the demands of one group without limiting the freedom of others.

  1. It is not in the public interest to force a reader to accept the prejudgment of a label characterizing any expression or its author as subversive or dangerous.

 
The ideal of labeling presupposes the existence of individuals or groups with wisdom to determine by authority what is good or bad for others. It presupposes that individuals must be directed in making up their minds about the ideas they examine. But Americans do not need others to do their thinking for them.


  1. It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians, as guardians of the people’s freedom to read, to contest encroachments upon that freedom by individuals or groups seeking to impose their own standards or tastes upon the community at large; and by the government whenever it seeks to reduce or deny public access to public information.

 
It is inevitable in the give and take of the democratic process that the political, the moral, or the aesthetic concepts of an individual or group will occasionally collide with those of another individual or group. In a free society individuals are free to determine for themselves what they wish to read, and each group is free to determine what it will recommend to its freely associated members. But no group has the right to take the law into its own hands, and to impose its own concept of politics or morality upon other members of a democratic society. Freedom is no freedom if it is accorded only to the accepted and the inoffensive. Further, democratic societies are more safe, free, and creative when the free flow of public information is not restricted by governmental prerogative or self-censorship.


  1. It is the responsibility of publishers and librarians to give full meaning to the freedom to read by providing books that enrich the quality and diversity of thought and expression. By the exercise of this affirmative responsibility, they can demonstrate that the answer to a “bad” book is a good one, the answer to a “bad” idea is a good one.

 
The freedom to read is of little consequence when the reader cannot obtain matter fit for that reader’s purpose. What is needed is not only the absence of restraint, but the positive provision of opportunity for the people to read the best that has been thought and said. Books are the major channel by which the intellectual inheritance is handed down, and the principal means of its testing and growth. The defense of the freedom to read requires of all publishers and librarians the utmost of their faculties, and deserves of all Americans the fullest of their support.

We state these propositions neither lightly nor as easy generalizations. We here stake out a lofty claim for the value of the written word. We do so because we believe that it is possessed of enormous variety and usefulness, worthy of cherishing and keeping free. We realize that the application of these propositions may mean the dissemination of ideas and manners of expression that are repugnant to many persons. We do not state these propositions in the comfortable belief that what people read is unimportant. We believe rather that what people read is deeply important; that ideas can be dangerous; but that the suppression of ideas is fatal to a democratic society. Freedom itself is a dangerous way of life, but it is ours.

This statement was originally issued in May of 1953 by the Westchester Conference of the American Library Association and the American Book Publishers Council, which in 1970 consolidated with the American Educational Publishers Institute to become the Association of American Publishers.

Adopted June 25, 1953, by the ALA Council and the AAP Freedom to Read Committee; amended January 28, 1972; January 16, 1991; July 12, 2000; June 30, 2004.


A Joint Statement by:

American Library Association
Association of American Publishers

 
Subsequently endorsed by:

American Booksellers Foundation for Free Expression
The Association of American University Presses, Inc.
The Children’s Book Council
Freedom to Read Foundation
National Association of College Stores
National Coalition Against Censorship
National Council of Teachers of English
The Thomas Jefferson Center for the Protection of Free Expression

 http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/freedomreadstatement

 

Freedom to View Statement

The FREEDOM TO VIEW, along with the freedom to speak, to hear, and to read, is protected by the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States. In a free society, there is no place for censorship of any medium of expression. Therefore these principles are affirmed:

To provide the broadest access to film, video, and other audiovisual materials because they are a means for the communication of ideas. Liberty of circulation is essential to insure the constitutional guarantee of freedom of expression.

To protect the confidentiality of all individuals and institutions using film, video, and other audiovisual materials.

To provide film, video, and other audiovisual materials which represent a diversity of views and expression. Selection of a work does not constitute or imply agreement with or approval of the content.

To provide a diversity of viewpoints without the constraint of labeling or prejudging film, video, or other audiovisual materials on the basis of the moral, religious, or political beliefs of the producer or filmmaker or on the basis of controversial content.

To contest vigorously, by all lawful means, every encroachment upon the public’s freedom to view.

This statement was originally drafted by the Freedom to View Committee of the American Film and Video Association (formerly the Educational Film Library Association) and was adopted by the AFVA Board of Directors in February 1979. This statement was updated and approved by the AFVA Board of Directors in 1989.

Endorsed January 10, 1990, by the ALA Council

 http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/statementspols/freedomviewstatement

Free Access to Libraries for Minors:

An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Library policies and procedures that effectively deny minors equal and equitable access to all library resources and services available to other users violate the Library Bill of Rights. The American Library Association opposes all attempts to restrict access to library services, materials, and facilities based on the age of library users.

Article V of the Library Bill of Rights states, “A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views.” The “right to use a library” includes free access to, and unrestricted use of, all the services, materials, and facilities the library has to offer. Every restriction on access to, and use of, library resources, based solely on the chronological age, educational level, literacy skills, or legal emancipation of users violates Article V.

Libraries are charged with the mission of providing services and developing resources to meet the diverse information needs and interests of the communities they serve. Services, materials, and facilities that fulfill the needs and interests of library users at different stages in their personal development are a necessary part of library resources. The needs and interests of each library user, and resources appropriate to meet those needs and interests, must be determined on an individual basis. Librarians cannot predict what resources will best fulfill the needs and interests of any individual user based on a single criterion such as chronological age, educational level, literacy skills, or legal emancipation.  Equitable access to all library resources and services shall not be abridged through restrictive scheduling or use policies.

Libraries should not limit the selection and development of library resources simply because minors will have access to them. Institutional self-censorship diminishes the credibility of the library in the community, and restricts access for all library users.

Children and young adults unquestionably possess First Amendment rights, including the right to receive information through the library in print, nonprint, or digital format. Constitutionally protected speech cannot be suppressed solely to protect children or young adults from ideas or images a legislative body believes to be unsuitable for them.1 Librarians and library governing bodies should not resort to age restrictions in an effort to avoid actual or anticipated objections, because only a court of law can determine whether material is not constitutionally protected.

The mission, goals, and objectives of libraries cannot authorize librarians or library governing bodies to assume, abrogate, or overrule the rights and responsibilities of parents and guardians. As Libraries: An American Value states, “We affirm the responsibility and the right of all parents and guardians to guide their own children’s use of the library and its resources and services.” Librarians and library governing bodies cannot assume the role of parents or the functions of parental authority in the private relationship between parent and child.  Librarians and governing bodies should maintain that only parents and guardians have the right and the responsibility to determine their children’s—and only their children’s—access to library resources.  Parents and guardians who do not want their children to have access to specific library services, materials, or facilities should so advise their children.

Lack of access to information can be harmful to minors. Librarians and library governing bodies have a public and professional obligation to ensure that all members of the community they serve have free, equal, and equitable access to the entire range of library resources regardless of content, approach, format, or amount of detail. This principle of library service applies equally to all users, minors as well as adults. Librarians and library governing bodies must uphold this principle in order to provide adequate and effective service to minors.

See also Access to Resources and Services in the School Library Media Program and Access to Children and Young Adults to Nonprint Materials.

  1. See Erznoznik v. City of Jacksonville, 422 U.S. 205 (1975) “Speech that is neither obscene as to youths nor subject to some other legitimate proscription cannot be suppressed solely to protect the young from ideas or images that a legislative body thinks unsuitable for them. In most circumstances, the values protected by the First Amendment are no less applicable when government seeks to control the flow of information to minors.” See also Tinker v. Des Moines School Dist., 393 U.S.503 (1969); West Virginia Bd. of Ed. v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943); AAMA v. Kendrick,. 244 F.3d 572 (7th Cir. 2001).

Adopted June 30, 1972, by the ALA Council; amended July 1, 1981; July 3, 1991; June 30, 2004; and July 2, 2008.

http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/freeaccesslibraries

Restricted Access to Library Materials:

An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Libraries are a traditional forum for the open exchange of information.  Restricting access to library materials violates the basic tenets of the Library Bill of Rights.

Some libraries block access to certain materials by placing physical or virtual barriers between the user and those materials. For example, materials are sometimes placed in a “locked case,” “adults only,” “restricted shelf,” or “high-demand” collection.  Access to certain materials is sometimes restricted to protect them from theft or mutilation, or because of statutory authority or institutional mandate.

In some libraries, access is restricted based on computerized reading management programs that assign reading levels to books and/or users and limit choice to those materials on the program’s reading list.  Materials that are not on the reading management list have been removed from the collection in some school libraries.  Organizing collections by reading management program level, ability, grade, or age level is another example of restricted access.  Even though the chronological age or grade level of users is not representative of their information needs or total reading abilities, users may feel inhibited from selecting resources located in areas that do not correspond to their assigned characteristics.

Physical and virtual restrictions on access to library materials may generate psychological, service, or language skills barriers to access as well.  Because restricted materials often deal with controversial, unusual, or sensitive subjects, having to ask a librarian or circulation clerk for access to them may be embarrassing or inhibiting for patrons desiring the materials.  Even when a title is listed in the catalog with a reference to its restricted status, a barrier is placed between the patron and the publication.  (See also “Labels and Rating Systems.”)  Because restricted materials often feature information that some people consider objectionable, potential library users may be predisposed to think of the materials as objectionable and, therefore, be reluctant to ask for access to them.

Although federal and state statutes require libraries that accept specific types of state and/or federal funding to install filters that limit access to Internet resources for minors and adults, filtering software applied to Internet stations in some libraries may prevent users from finding targeted categories of information, much of which is constitutionally protected.  The use of Internet filters must be addressed through library policies and procedures to ensure that users receive information and that filters do not prevent users from exercising their First Amendment rights.  Users have the right to unfiltered access to constitutionally protected information.  (See also “Access to Electronic Information, Services, and Resources.”)

Library policies that restrict access to materials for any reason must be carefully formulated and administered to ensure they do not violate established principles of intellectual freedom.  This caution is reflected in ALA policies, such as “Evaluating Library Collections,” “Free Access to Libraries for Minors,” “Preservation Policy,” and the ACRL “Code of Ethics for Special Collections Librarians.”

Donated materials require special consideration.  In keeping with the “Joint Statement on Access” of the American Library Association and Society of American Archivists, libraries should avoid accepting donor agreements or entering into contracts that impose permanent restrictions on special collections.  As stated in the “Joint Statement on Access,” it is the responsibility of a library with such collections “to make available original research materials in its possession on equal terms of access.”

A primary goal of the library profession is to facilitate access to all points of view on current and historical issues.  All proposals for restricted access should be carefully scrutinized to ensure that the purpose is not to suppress a viewpoint or to place a barrier between users and content.  Libraries must maintain policies and procedures that serve the diverse needs of their users and protect the First Amendment right to receive information.

 

Adopted February 2, 1973, by the ALA Council; amended July 1, 1981; July 3, 1991; July 12, 2000; June 30, 2004; January 28, 2009.

http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/restrictedaccess

 

Access for Children and Young Adults to Nonprint Materials:

An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights

Library collections of nonprint materials raise a number of intellectual freedom issues, especially regarding minors. Article V of the Library Bill of Rights states, “A person’s right to use a library should not be denied or abridged because of origin, age, background, or views.”

The American Library Association’s principles protect minors’ access to sound, images, data, games, software, and other content in all formats such as tapes, CDs, DVDs, music CDs, computer games, software, databases, and other emerging technologies. ALA’s Free Access to Libraries for Minors: An Interpretation of the Library Bill of Rights states:

The “right to use a library” includes free access to, and unrestricted use of, all the services, materials, and facilities the library has to offer. Every restriction on access to, and use of, library resources, based solely on the chronological age, educational level, literacy skills, or legal emancipation of users violates Article V.

Parents—and only parents—have the right and responsibility to restrict access of their children—and only their children—to library resources. Parents who do not want their children to have access to certain library services, materials, or facilities should so advise their children. Librarians and library governing bodies cannot assume the role of parents or the functions of parental authority in the private relationship between parent and child.

Lack of access to information can be harmful to minors. Librarians and library governing bodies have a public and professional obligation to ensure that all members of the community they serve have free, equal, and equitable access to the entire range of library resources regardless of content, approach, format, or amount of detail. This principle of library service applies equally to all users, minors as well as adults. Librarians and library governing bodies must uphold this principle in order to provide adequate and effective service to minors.

Policies that set minimum age limits for access to any nonprint materials or information technology, with or without parental permission, abridge library use for minors. Age limits based on the cost of the materials are also unacceptable. Librarians, when dealing with minors, should apply the same standards to circulation of nonprint materials as are applied to books and other print materials except when directly and specifically prohibited by law.

Recognizing that librarians cannot act in loco parentis, ALA acknowledges and supports the exercise by parents of their responsibility to guide their own children’s reading and viewing. Libraries should provide published reviews and/or reference works that contain information about the content, subject matter, and recommended audiences for nonprint materials. These resources will assist parents in guiding their children without implicating the library in censorship.

In some cases, commercial content ratings, such as the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) movie ratings, might appear on the packaging or promotional materials provided by producers or distributors. However, marking out or removing this information from materials or packaging constitutes expurgation or censorship.

MPAA movie ratings, Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) game ratings, and other rating services are private advisory codes and have no legal standing (Expurgation of Library Materials). For the library to add ratings to nonprint materials if they are not already there is unacceptable. It is also unacceptable to post a list of such ratings with a collection or to use them in circulation policies or other procedures. These uses constitute labeling, “an attempt to prejudice attitudes” (Labels and Rating Systems), and are forms of censorship. The application of locally generated ratings schemes intended to provide content warnings to library users is also inconsistent with the Library Bill of Rights.

The interests of young people, like those of adults, are not limited by subject, theme, or level of sophistication. Librarians have a responsibility to ensure young people’s access to materials and services that reflect diversity of content and format sufficient to meet their needs.
Adopted June 28, 1989, by the ALA Council; amended June 30, 2004.

http://www.ala.org/advocacy/intfreedom/librarybill/interpretations/accesschildren